Lovaas videotapes

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Lovaas videotapes

Postby somalezu » Mon Feb 04, 2008 11:19 am

Tocmai am reusit sa descarc de pe internet 5 filme cu denumirea de "Lovaas videotapes". Cred ca sunt casetele video care insoteau "Me Book"-ul din 81.
Nu am apucat sa le vad, nu stiu (si nu am nici compententa) sa va spun cat de corecte sau utile sunt.
Daca aveti rabdare pana diseara o sa va pun la dispozitie si "index-ul" - o descriere sumara a continutului acestor casete.
Se vad si se aud destul de prost (sunt copiate de pe casete video totusi ..), dar ma gandesc ca poate totusi vor fi utile cuiva.
Gamara a avut amabilitatea sa-si puna serverul la bataie asa ca acum filmele pot fi descarcate de la adresa
http://autism.gamara.ro/materiale
Filmele vor fi disponibile pentru multa vreme asa ca rugamintea mea e sa nu abuzam totusi de serverul lui Gamara si sa nu ne inghesuim toti sa facem download in acelasi timp. Daca observati ca merge foarte incet, reveniti peste o zi.
Adresa : http://autism.gamara.ro/materiale
Va multumesc pentru intelegere,
Cosmin
somalezu
 
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Postby gamara » Mon Feb 04, 2008 1:15 pm

Incercand sa imbunatatesc utilitatea site-ului, am schimbat layout-ul acestuia. Filmele incarcate de somalezu se pot gasi acum intrand direct pe http://autism.gamara.ro, in sectiunea materiale
gamara
 
Posts: 127
Joined: Tue Jan 01, 2008 8:53 am
Location: Timisoara

Nice work

Postby somalezu » Mon Feb 04, 2008 1:52 pm

Nice work, gamara !
somalezu
 
Posts: 284
Joined: Mon Jan 21, 2008 3:39 pm
Location: Bucuresti

Postby somalezu » Mon Feb 04, 2008 7:04 pm

DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT
OF THE ME BOOK VIDEOTAPES

O. Ivar Lovaas
University of California at Los Angeles
1981 by PRO-ED. Inc




TAPE 1: GETTING READY TO LEARN

Scene 1. The (list part of this tape shows a student teacher, an intelligent and
devoted person, trying to teach an autistic child a relatively simple task such as
telling the difference between black and white. As can be seen, she's markedly
unsuccessful. Although this section only lasts for a few minutes, there are
some reasons to believe that she could be continuing her effort for many hours,
days, and perhaps years and still not succeed. What would most likely happen is
that the failures to help this child would lead the teacher to become discouraged
and feel inadequate and finally give up, perhaps describing herself as not suited to
work with autistic-retarded children. The child, Valentine, would not learn
anything either. And that would destine him for institutionalization. A most
critical part of his future rests on the success of this early teaching. If these
seemingly easy and early steps fail, later and more difficult steps would most
surely fail also. The teacher may label herself unsuited as a teacher, and
Valentine would be labeled as brain damaged or otherwise incapable of learning.
As these tapes will show, such inferences are far from the truth. To help a child
like Valentine move ahead, the teaching process has to be changed as these
tapes (and the teaching manual The Me Book) will illustrate. It is wise to
assume that if a child does not learn, then he is not being taught appropriately.
Therefore, let us note certain main problems with the teacher's approach that can
be summarized below.
First, she should try to arrange the situation where the child can be successful, put
out positive behaviors that the teacher could reinforce and strengthen. As was
seen, Valentine was not helped to engage in any positive or correct behaviors,
therefore the teacher was not able to reinforce him, and consequently he was
not learning. Note that the amount of learning is directly proportionate to the
number of positive rewards a child receives for trying to master a task. In order
to set up a situation where the child will be successful, the teacher could either
simplify the task, or she could use effective prompts. There are some reasons to
believe in this particular instance that the use of successful prompts would help
the child learn. For example, if the reader or the viewer turns to the very last
section on the fifth or last tape, this particular child, that very afternoon, working
with a competent behavioral teacher, mastered the black-white discrimination.

Returning to the teaching situation, a second area of difficulty can be seen in the
fact that the child engages in a tremendous amount of incorrect behaviors.
There are some reasons to believe that a high rate of incorrect behaviors like
these are directly interfering with the teacher's attempt to teach. In other words,
the child's being distracted by the presence of other toys, getting out of the
chair on numerous occasions, engaging in self-stimulatory behavior, etc., are
instances where the child is in a way outside the teaching situation. He is not
engaging in positive behaviors, which could be rewarded and strengthened, but
instead is presenting his teacher with an array of interfering behaviors,
which in turn must be ignored or reprimanded. The teacher is unable to provide
this child with much joy. To remedy this, a teacher may want to reduce the
number of interfering behaviors. She could do this in part by changing the
physical structure of the teaching situation. For example, she could remove the
table and sit closer to him and thereby physically hold him still for longer periods
of time and physically prevent him from actively engaging in interruptive
behaviors. The second avenue would be to provide some form of a negative
feedback for the kind of interfering behavior so as to reduce it, as we will
discuss later on in the tape.
The third manner in which his teacher could improve Valentine's
performance would be to make her positive rewards maximally different from
her negative consequences. Observe how this teacher's rewards ("Good") sound
pretty much like her corrections ("No"). In other words, the child is not being
taught by the use of differential reinforcements, and that would be another
reason why the child would move ahead.
Fourthly, the instructions are much too complex. All the teacher needs to do,
in these early states, is to emphasize the salient or relevant part of the stimulus,
like "black" or "while." This would make it much easier for the child to learn.
Statements like, "Valentine, please look at this. I want you to point to the
black card," tend to hide or obscure the client's attention to the critical
component. Once the client has mastered black vs. while, the additional
verbalizations (i.e., "point to," etc.) can be gradually faded in. There are other
problems with the teaching situation that can be brought out, such as the
possibility that this teacher is actively reinforcing the interfering behaviors, but
these problems might be illustrated better by going ahead to subsequent sections
of the tape.

Scene 2. The next scene shows the building of eye contact. This is a relatively
simple response to build. Note that the situation is set up in such a fashion, by
the use of prompts (sight of the food in front of the teacher's face) and the
physical closeness between teacher and child, that the child cannot help but be
successful. A good teacher is a teacher who helps a child put out winning
behaviors, while reducing the number of losing or negative behaviors.
Incidentally, one problem with the use of eye contact as a starting point is that
the response itself might be difficult for the child to discriminate. That is, the
child may not be aware of why he or she is being reinforced because the
response is so fleeting, simple, and quickly delivered. Perhaps teaching a child
to sit, which is a more discrete and noticeable response, would be easier to
accomplish in these early stages. Note also a problem which we now encounter
in removing the prompt. If the child is reinforced for looking at the teacher
when a prompt is present, then we are reinforcing the relationship between the
prompt and looking. A teacher will want to remove the prompt as soon as
possible to allow reinforcement for responding to the instructions (i.e., look)
instead of the prompt. (On the other hand, when one removes the prompt one
may run into the problem that the child may not engage in the correct
behavior.)

Scene 3. This scene illustrates the building of eye contact and our attempt to
verbally admonish a child for engaging in self-stimulatory behavior, which
probably interferes with the acquisition of new, more appropriate behavior.
Note the use of DRO (differential positive reinforcement for other behaviors) to
replace the behavior that the teacher tries to weaken or suppress. Such DRO's
are essential. Note in this scene the difficulty of getting the behavior without the
use of the prompt. Again and again a teacher will be placed in this dilemma.
That is, if one reinforces a child for responding in the presence of a prompt, one
is building a relationship between the prompt and the behavior instead of
building a relationship between instructions and the behavior. If one now
removes the prompt altogether, then the child may not respond when the
instructions are presented by themselves. If the teacher does not get the behavior
at the third or fourth presentation of the instructions alone, the teacher has no
choice but to present the child with the prompt. Otherwise the behavior will
extinguish totally, and the teacher loses the child. This is a dilemma that is
difficult to resolve. One has to remove the prompt, otherwise the child isn't
learning. The Me Book discusses this problem and potential solutions.

Scene 4. This scene also shows a client engaged in self-stimulatory behavior
and being verbally admonished. Note again that if one uses admonition like
this, then it is critical that one remember to use a DRO, the opportunity to build
the alternate behaviors, the behaviors that should replace the self-stimulatory or
other interfering behaviors. If this is not done, then the client is ill-served by the
use of verbal aversives. The effectiveness of verbal aversives is short-lived.
Long-lasting effects can only be hoped for if alternate or more appropriate
behaviors are taught to replace the earlier, more primitive forms of self-
stimulatory behaviors.

Scene 5. We are beginning to teach a child non-verbal imitation. The scene
illustrates certain problems. First, it can be seen that the reinforcement is
delayed. This is apparent in several scenes. There is as much as a three or four
second lapse between the correct behavior and the primary reinforcer. It is
critical that this reinforcer be delivered immediately upon the occurrence of the
response. Otherwise, the teacher may be reinforcing an incorrect response,
such as the child moving her hands down (as this scene shows). A second
problem in this scene is that the instructions and the prompt do not overlap in
time. As can be seen, the instruction is given and then several seconds later, the
prompt is delivered. It is optimal that the two occur concurrently in time.
Another potential problem occurs when the teacher moves on to a new task
(hand-clap) before the first task (arms raised) is mastered.

Scene 6. This scene shows imitation training in a client who has been taught
imitation for two to three months. As can be seen, Chris* self-stimulatory
behavior has already been reduced by the increase in the strength of alternate
behaviors. He seems engaged in, and appears perhaps to enjoy, the task. The
teacher has been able to reduce (thin out) the use of primary reinforcement. The
scene illustrates how comfortable and pleasant interactions between the
teacher and the client can become. And it must be to facilitate learning. Note also
that a large number of trials are occurring within a short period of time (massed
trials). In other words, the inter-trial interval is short. One should probably run a
trial every ten seconds, so that the child would get a maximum of five to ten
reinforcers every minute. The children learn faster with massed rather than
spaced trials.

Scene 7. This scene shows the teacher intermixing already mastered material
with more difficult tasks so as to maintain the child's motivation. We are still
occasionally using primary reinforcers here; it is a good idea to have some goodies
like this around during the first
year of treatment. It helps establish new reinforcers, and food reinforcement is
reassuring to the child.
We're going back to the child who had the earlier problems with imitation. Note
how extremely well this particular child performs on facial imitations. Sometimes
one can observe that one can start teaching one form of imitation and not go very far.
Then, if one switches to another kind of imitation, one may be surprised to
observe how easy it is to teach. In general, if you have worked on a simple task
intensively for several hours and not made much progress, switch to another task,
perhaps the child learns the new task more quickly. One can always go back to the
earlier, more difficult task.
This scene shows how one can use imitation to build play behavior. Notice how
easy we have made it for the child to succeed. In a way, the child has no choice but to
succeed. This particular boy has already mastered the task, and we are just running
through various steps to illustrate the succession or movement from one level of
nonverbal imitation to another. Note how easily these behaviors can be prompted so
that the child would be successful throughout. The viewer may now want to pay
attention to the exactness with which this particular child imitates the teacher's
movements. What is happening here, perhaps, is that the child is being reinforced by
matching and lining. For some children, lining and precision in matching appears to
be very reinforcing in its own and this might very well be the case of Ken. An
interesting implication can now be formulated: when one has reached a certain state
of learning, as when a teacher exposes her students to different tasks, she will begin
to discover strong and idiosyncratic reinforcers. In other words, by being exposed
to matching (as in imitation) Ken has also been exposed to a new reinforcer. The
reinforcer is a sensory/perceptual event: the sight of seeing his behavioral output
match that of the teacher's. The task takes on intrinsically reinforcing properties; one
doesn't have to use food reinforcement any longer. There are large individual dif-
ferences in what children find reinforcing.

Scenes 8, 9,10, 11, and 12. In these subsequent scenes, nonverbal imitation is
extended into more meaningful parts of the child's environment, dancing,
gymnastics, playing with toys, etc. Instead of shaping the new behaviors piece by
piece, the teacher may now provide a model of the behavior and add some minor
shaping steps. We are becoming more efficient as teachers, and this is
critical, because these children do not have any time to lose if they are to avoid or
postpone institutionalization.

Scene 13. This scene illustrates a match to sample exercise. Such an exercise is
akin to imitation since it involves the matching of visual stimuli. There is a great
value in teaching match to sample because the matching to sample appears, at least
in many cases, to be intrinsically reinforcing. When the match is made, the match is
its own reinforcer, as we discussed earlier in the case of imitation training. Note the
care that we take here in rotating the position of the stimuli (left vs. right
placement) so that position does not become a cue in helping the child solve the
problem. Note also that we remove the stimuli between trials in these early stages of
learning so that when the stimuli are presented they appear discrete and easy for the
child to notice. Note how we go from the easy to the complex. That is, we start the
child on a black-white discrimination, we then move on to colors, we go from
colors to different forms, and then we finally combine color and form. In the latter
discrimination, the child would now have to attend to more than one attribute of
the environment (both the color and the shape) in order to succeed. Such exercises
might also help in future mastery of new teaching situations since he is now
becoming increasingly skillful in attending to outside cues. Our experience is that it
is easy to get the children involved in match to sample tasks. Note that we moved
from two-dimensional to three-dimensional objects and from relatively non-
representative objects to everyday objects. A teacher could probably be as
successful by starting in the opposite direction, moving from three-dimensional to
two-dimensional stimuli. Match to sample tasks could be easily extended to teach
the child new and interesting concepts. For example, the child very well could be
taught here to sort objects or dimensions, such as human vs. animals, children vs.
adults, etc. In other words, the extension of match to sample into more meaningful,
academic, and intellectual behaviors is relatively easy to contemplate.

Scene 14. Ken and his teacher are involved in early receptive language training. Once
a teacher has built 10 to 20 nonverbal imitations then the nonverbal imitations are
used as prompts to teach the same behavior in response to verbal input. It can be said
that one shifts from visual to verbal control over behavior. This is probably similar to
the way an average or normal child would be taught when he is two or three years
old. That is, the parent or the teacher prompts a correct behavior by modeling it at
(he same time as the instructions are given. The adult's modeling of the behavior (the prompt)
is then removed. It can be said that one obtains verbal control over the
various behaviors of the child. That is, one is teaching receptive
language.

Scene 15. This scene shows the teaching of two-pan commands.
Note how involved Ken is in this learning situation and how logical or
rational his behavior is.
The last scene shows how an adult can engage the child in appropriate
behavior at all times. The purpose behind much of this teaching is to
keep the child involved in appropriate behavior, attending to other
people and his external environment. This is important to do because the
child will look normal and more easily fit into a larger, more normal
environment. Note that at this level almost anyone can help because
there is no attempt to teach the child anything new; the scene describes
maintenance and generalization of what has already been acquired.

TAPE 2: EARLY LANGUAGE

Scene 1. Teachers here are attempting to teach verbal imitation. This is a
very difficult task to teach, perhaps the most demanding one, even though
it may look very simple. It is difficult to teach (and hard for the child to
learn) verbal imitation because the discriminations between sounds and
sound combinations are very difficult to make, requiring more detailed
knowledge of discrimination learning. In any case, one can observe in
Scene 1 how this particular child is trying very hard to vocalize in
response to the teacher. It is as if she has the verbal expressions on the tip
of her tongue. Her efforts are admirable.

Scene 2. This scene is quite long. It shows some of the nuances in
our attempts to build verbal imitative behavior. It is doubly important at
this point to familiarize oneself with The Me Book and the steps outlined
there because the procedure is too complicated to show on a short
segment of tape. Note how comfortable the child is, how much love and
affection he gets. This becomes particularly important because a child
who is happy is more spontaneous and will feel free to vocalize. An
anxious child inhibits vocalizations. The teacher will want to reinforce
these spontaneous vocalizations so as to achieve the beginnings of social
control over them. This is hard work for any child. The teacher may
conduct one hour of imitation training, then intersperse one hour of less
intense training, then go back to another hour of imitation training and so
on. Perhaps the ideal time allotment is two hours in the morning and
two hours in the afternoon for this intense kind of training. Note that when
a child has learned nonverbal imitation, he has not made any progress on
verbal imitation and vice versa. These are separate forms of imitation,
and they do not seem to overlap. Note also that the child may leam to
imitate sounds but he does not appear to simultaneously imitate decibel
level or duration. These various dimensions of verbal behavior would
have to be taught separately.

Scene 3. Here a teacher and a girl rehearse and practice verbal and
nonverbal imitations. This is a very instructive scene because one can
observe that the child is fussing throughout the scene even though
there appears to be no substantial demands placed on this child. A
variety of causes could lie behind such fussing. For example, the child
may be medically ill and therefore uncomfortable, the task may be more
difficult than anticipated, etc. But if one closely observes an interaction
like this, it may be possiblc to detect that the teacher is inadvertently rewarding the child for
fussing. This reward could come about because of two reasons.
First, the icacher gives a gentle "shrT and other attention each time
the child is fussing, which may serve as a positive reinforcer. The
second form of reinforcement may lie in the fact that the teacher is
actually discontinuing or otherwise postponing the teaching situa-
tion whenever the child is fussing. The teacher discontinuing her
demands, even for a few seconds, may be a sufficient reward for the
child who finds the teaching situation disagreeable. The fussing may
be seen as a communication: in the first instance the child is saying,
"Pay attention to me/' in the second interaction the child is saying,
"Don't ask me to do all this." The interaction underscores the impor-
tance of building appropriate language to replace the fussing.

Scene 4. The teacher is shaping verbal imitations. This time one
can see how closely the teacher is working with the child and how
immediately (he responses are being reinforced. One can observe
the fastest rate of learning when the reinforcer is literally on top of the
response. We choose various kinds of nutritional everyday food
items for the children who need such rewards so they get their main
meals around teaching time in the early stages of treatment. That is,
we break cereal, toast, and so forth, into small pieces, and then they
are fed their breakfast, lunch, dinner and in-between snacks while
they are being taught.

Scene 5. This scene demonstrates how already mastered and more
difficult learning are intermixed so as to keep the child's level of
motivation high. By intermixing one or two previously mastered
trials with practice trials on a new and difficult task, one is more
assured that a child's motivational level will stay high. Anyone
would need a certain level of success in order to maintain an opti-
mal teaching relationship.

Scene 6. This scene shows the building of receptive language,
as in object labeling. Note that the situation is set up in such a
fashion that the child cannot help but be successful: first he has no
choice, the correct stimulus (the cookie) is presented alone. Then,
when the incorrect stimulus is presented (the doll), the negative
stimulus is introduced in a slow, gradual manner. What the child is
learning, in addition to identifying the correct stimulus (the cookie),
is to withhold responding to the negative stimulus (the doll). Note
that we moved (he stimulus to avoid teaching a position preference.
When the doll and cookie arc presented simultaneously, he responds
to the cookie. Why is that? Probably because the cookie has been
reinforced so much in the past. It is a stronger response. Children
always act in a lawful and systematic manner. Their behavior makes
good sense in every teaching situation once one has the opportunity
to observe them closely and think about it. The teacher presents the
stimulus choice and the child does not succeed. After a few trials of
failing to respond, the teacher has to prompt the correct response,
which is being done here. He is then presented with the material
again. The prompt is now removed and he responds correctly. It can
be said that he has learned to drop the prompt. A critical situation is
arranged when the doll and the cookie are interchanged on the table,
and the teacher interchanges requests for the cookie and the doll.
Note how aware the child seems to be of his environment at this
point, and how incredibly hard he is concentrating on the task at
hand. It is at this point, where the child has a choice between cor-
rect and incorrect, where one can observe the best performance and
the maximum amount of awareness or attention to the external envi-
ronment. It is as if he is starting to think.

Scene 7. Ken is in a group with his mother, his teachers, and
student volunteers who work with him. It is important to work in a
group so that everyone can see what everyone else is doing so as to
provide feedback to each other and learn. Note again how we
arrange a situation where it is maximally likely for Ken to succeed:
the teacher's instructions (the receptive language) prompts the
child*s expressive language. Note again that in order for learning to
proceed, one has to remove this kind of prompting. We do this sim-
ply by not preceding the child's expressive labeling by the receptive
label.

Scene 8. This scene shows us teaching a child to label his own
behaviors, in this instance standing vs. sitting. This is a very
instructive scene because it shows how easy it is to teach a child the
wrong response (the correct response to the wron^ stimulus). Notice
that the child makes the mistake of giving the response that was
reinforced on the previous trial. Such a mistake is easy to under-
stand, from a learning point of view. For example, if the child has
just been reinforced for saying, "I am silting," then, if one moves to
standing and asks what he is doing, he will repeat again, "I am sil-
ting." Something important is now happening: the child makes the
incorrect response, he is given a dclinite and loud "No!", and he
then changes from the incorrect to the correct response and is rein-
forced. Specifically, the child is saying, "I am sitting." The teacher
will say, "No!" The child then says, "I am .standing." The teacher
now says, "Good," and otherwise rewards him. Note in this instance that
the child is not learning to associate the words sitting and standing to his
own behavior of sitting and standing but rather to the teacher saying,
"No!" There is a good rule to remember: these children will learn any
behavior accompanied by reinforcement and can just as easily learn the
wrong S-R connection. A major concern in teaching these children is to
make sure that they are responding to the correct stimulus. If the teacher
concentrates on the details of the teaching situation and becomes aware
of potential teaching mistakes, these problems can be overcome.
Another instructive part of this scene concerns the great deal of eye
movements and gazing, which probably renders the teaching situation
difficult for the child. In other words, the child is attending to a number
of (visual) stimuli that are not part of the teaching situation.

Scene 9. Involving the same student, it can be seen how very adequately
he has learned to label complex behaviors presented on two-dimensional
stimuli while having difficulty with discriminating seemingly less
complex stimuli from his own body. Nevertheless, it is obviously
occurring here. A number of alternatives might now be suggested. For
example, the child may be taught to label his own behaviors on a two-
dimensional picture, then to label his behaviors in a mirror, and then by
gradually fading the mirror, he may eventually come to label his own
behavior as he experiences it through bodily cues (tactile and other
proximal receptors).

Scene 10. This child is expressing his wants and learning to manipulate
his environment more effectively. All along it is important to note that the
child's behavior must control, in great detail, the teacher's behavior.
Although these are very controlling teachers, it is obvious that in order for
teaching to proceed adequately, the teacher has to be controlled by the
child also. The teacher must discriminate between being controlled by the
child's appropriate behavior, which will help the child grow and develop,
and being controlled by inappropriate behaviors, which will interfere
with the child's growth. Note in this scene that, if we listen to what the
child has to say, he prefers a cookie over a banana when given that
choice. Note that when confronted with a banana and water, the child
prefers a banana, which gives some indication that he knows what is
going on. Even so, one has to help the child make the best decisions.

Scene 11. Here we see the beginning of signing. For some clients
who have particular problems in vocalizing, one may attempt to teach
sign language. Sometimes signing facilitates vocal behavior, sometimes not.
There is considerable literature on signing at this point,
some of which is discussed in The Me Book. We sign whole sentences at
this point, hoping to activate something that linguists have guessed to be
latent structure. There is no reason to believe, from viewing these
scenes, that we did in fact activate such latent grammatical structures.
Perhaps they don't exist. Instead, it appears that we are closely guiding
his sentence in a one-to-one, unit-by-unit procedure. The use of whole
sentences, at this point, would be counter-indicated from a learning point
of view.

Scene 12. Note this very important scene. This teacher tries hard to
teach this youngster to express himself with signs. Pay attention to how the
student seems indifferent to the rein forcers that are provided and prefers
instead to self-stimulate and act out. This is a warning sign: the teacher is
not getting or maintaining adequate control over the student because
she cannot offer him what he wants. What this might imply is that the
student is more reinforced by engaging in self-stimulatory behavior than
by responding to the teacher's praise and the food reinforcement (juice)
that has been provided. Note how the teaching situation is gradually
deteriorating, and the child is acting increasingly inappropriate. At a certain
point, the teacher tells the student to go to the corner, that is, he is placed
in time-out. The danger with this particular procedure at this particular time
is that time-out (being in the corner away from the teaching situation)
may in (act have been a reinforcer for the student. Perhaps he engaged in
the interfering behavior as an attempt to avoid or escape the demands
that the teacher placed upon him. Therefore, time-out at this particular
point could well have served to reinforce his inappropriate behavior. This
probable mistake was in part corrected in the last scene where the teacher
dismissed the child from the teaching situation contingent on an
appropriate response.

TAPE 3: BASIC SELF-HELP SKILLS


Tape 3 was constructed largely to show some f I lustrations of how
the teaching techniques and curriculum that were presented in the
first two tapes could be placed within a meaningful context in the
community. The tape illustrates a deinstitunalization environment,
which concretely means that the clients were removed from a large
institution and placed in a group-home (Teaching-Home staffed
by Teaching Parents) in the community. There is an immediate
humanizing effect in the change of environment, and there is
literature that is already available that describes procedures in quite
some detail on how to help dåinstitutionalize. The program was
modeled after one that was developed by Dr. M. Wolff at the
University of Kansas, in Lawrence, Kansas.

Scene 1. This scene shows a client making his bed as an illustration
of the kind of self-help and self-care skills that the clients are taught.
This is a client who has been institutionalized for some twenty
years, and at the age of 25 is introduced to a home in which he will
learn the kinds of skills that he needs to possess in order to be
placed in a less restrictive environment (a group home) in the
community. You can see Stan who, with his wife, lives in this home
and takes care of and helps leach the four clients who also live with
them. Note all the prompting that has to be provided in these early
stages has to be removed in order to help the client learn to be more
independent.

Scene 2. This scene shows the client toileting himself— brushing
his teeth in this instance. There is a problem here with the client's
perseverating on the toothbrush, and one of the staff members
introduced the idea of a tape recorder, which the client could use to
better monitor his performance and move ahead in the sequence. The
tape is a prompt that also has to be faded out eventually.

Scene 3. This scene depicts a client shaving his face using a
straight-edge razor. Some care has been given to the placement of
soap on his face because that is a prompt, at least for the time being,
of where he should shave. This particular client has also spent most
of his adult life in a hospital before ho was placed in the Teaching
Home.

Scene 4. A child is learning to dress himself using backward
chaining procedures. Il may be efficient to use nonverbal imitation
procedures to help in this task.

Scene 5. Here we sec a relatively long scene sequence illustrating
toilet training. This program is built on a model developed by
Drs. Foxx and Azrin and is referenced in The Me Book. The toilet
training scene illustrates in concrete and easily understandable steps
the use of prompts and rein forcers, the moving in successive steps
from easy to more difficult behaviors, the strengthening of alternate
behaviors, and so on. Note the variety of reinforcements: the client
receives food reinforcement, social reinforcement, opportunity to
escape from sitting on the toilet and to move about, to observe the
water being flushed, etc. Note the slow and gradual manner in which
we are making the task more difficult. A big step in this program
occurs when the client has to move from the chair to the toilet so
that he urinates in the toilet instead of on the chair. Whenever a
client makes a mistake at one step in the hierarchy, one goes back to
an earlier successful step. Note how the task is gradually made more
difficult by placing the chair farther and farther away from the toi-
let. Eventually the toilet is out of the client's sight. Additional
behavioral requirements are gradually added for successful perfor-
mance. The main behavioral prerequisite for successful toilet train-
ing is that the client has learned to sit on a chair for a prolonged
period of time. One scene here illustrates over-correction of an acci-
dent. The client has to wipe off urine from the chair and surrounding
area. Note that the client smiles during this task, which suggests that
he enjoys over-correction, and this in turn means that it probably
won't work. Notice that the client is being heavily reinforced for a
correct alternate behavior, which is, in this instance, keeping his
pants dry (dry pants check). Toilet training may seem like a rela-
tively insignificant achievement to some, but it turns out to be of
major importance in later successful community placement.

Scene 6. The teaching of grooming skills, which are important to
learn if one wants to belong to a larger community outside, are
depicted in this scene. The teaching parents need to interact with the
outside world, and they usually bring their child with them out in
the community. Looking pretty is but one part of this more elaborate
requirement of fitting in out there. Such requirements were rarely
raised within the institution because the demands were not there.

Scene 7. In the kitchen we see the clients helping prepare their
own food. Food preparation and sitting down to eat three meals a day
may consume several hours and is a very reinforcing task for most.
Sometimes it is easier for an adult to do all these tasks for the client
just like it is easier for a parent to do all the chores for one's
own children. Bui, in ihc long run, such an attitude will backfire because
it builds helplessness and inactivity on the part of the client. Note all the
subtle and gentle prompts that this Teaching Parent provides in the kitchen
to guide her clients to successful performance. It seems like her
prompts are a natural part of her interaction with the children. So are her
rewards. It is obviously important in any teaching sequence to
approximate, as much as possible, the real world. The scene shows how
we carefully teach the clients how to behave adequately in a potentially
dangerous environment. In this instance, it is a hot stove. In another
instance, it may be teaching a client to cross a busy street when the light is
green, not to play with matches, etc.

Scene 8. In this scene we see mealtime. This is a joyful event and
allows for all kinds of interactions and all kinds of teaching to occur.
Note that the people who care for the clients also eat with them. This
puts additional requirements on both the clients and the staff. It is easier
for a client to survive a placement in the less-structured environment
when the client can help with the food preparation, can eat in an
appropriate manner, can help clean up the table, is toilet-trained, can
behave appropriately in the community, and so forth.

Scenes 9 and 10. These scenes illustrate some of the effort that is
expended on helping the clients establish appropriate leisure skills. Lack
of such skills is one of the major problems with devel-opmentally
disabled persons. What are the clients going to do if they aren't
working or eating? Playing cards and playing musical instruments is
something that we all can share, and these particular tasks are taught in a
concrete step-by-step fashion to these clients.

Scene 11. Bill is taught to sign his name in this scene. Note how
absorbed he is in the teaching situation and how normal, adequate, and
competent he looks. Now pay attention to what happens just a minute
after this sequence when he is not engaged in teaching but rather in sitting
and resting. At this point he looks so bizarre and psychotic that he might be
mistaken for another person. What this implies is that psychopathological
behaviors are situational; they are likely to occur in some situations but
not others. The teaching of appropriate behaviors, to replace the bizarre
and psychotic gestures, constitutes a most significant treatment.
Tape 3 ends with a scene showing a man and a woman, both of them
developmentally disabled, sitting on a park bench. How one would go
from here is a most interesting question. Perhaps the teaching of
affectionate interaction between these persons would be an important
goal.

TAPE 4: ADVANCED LANGUAGE
On the whole, this tape builds upon the teaching steps as laid out in
earlier tapes and extends them into a much more complicated
level of functioning. No new teaching principle is introduced at this
point.

Scene 1. This scene illustrates pronoun training and ways we try to
make such pronoun training easier. Note how complex pronoun
training can become. It is important to keep in mind that the adequate
and appropriate use of pronouns is merely started in this kind of
controlled teaching situation. It is easier for the child to learn in a
situation that is initially simple and where the teacher has good control
over the relevant variables. However, pronoun training, like all other
teachings, has to be extended to the everyday natural environment in
order to become meaningful and useful.

Scene 2. This scene depicts the teaching of prepositions. The teacher
prompts (using her finger) ihc correct response. When she withdraws
that prompt, the student is carefully studying the teacher's face for
additional cues. It is very important now for the teacher not to visually
guide the correct response, otherwise the student would learn to look at
the teacher's eyes to solve this problem rather than listen to her
instructions. It is often easier for these children to solve a problem by
attending to visual rather than verbal cues. Perhaps this comes about
because verbal cues are more difficult to discriminate than visual ones.
The scene illustrates how it is all too easy, even for a competent
teacher, to make teaching mistakes, emphasizing the need for continual
updating and feedback on one's teaching techniques.

Scene 3. This scene introduces expressive prepositions. Note how the
language programs develop from receptive to expressive use of
language. Ft is possible that the instructions employed in this scene may
be too wordy. A more helpful (discriminablc) instruction would just
consist of in as compared to under (or some other preposition) in the
beginning stages. The complete sentence (Place X under Y) coufd
then bo failed in during later stages of learning.

Scene 4. The child is placinir himself in various physical rela-
tionships to his environment. This is a point where the use of prepo
sitions is becoming more meaningful and is introduced in everyday
life. In order for language to become meaningful, it has to be
extended.


Scene 5. A student is learning to label colors. Note that his enunciation
of color labels is so poor that the teacher encounters problems whether to
reinforce or not. If the teacher experiences uncertainty whether to
reinforce because the student's response is vague and ambiguous, then the
client cannot discriminate when and why he is being reinforced either
Not much would be learned in such a situation. In this instance, it might
have been better to teach more adequate enunciation separately before
one goes this far into meaning training.
This scene shows the early stages in leading a client to attend to two
verbally expressed dimensions concurrently.

Scene 6, This scene shows how we attempt to teach the concept of
time in a concrete and discriminate manner. The stimulus objects are
arranged succinctly in front of the client, and he is asked to respond to
temporal cues (the ordering of events in time). Note how we have tried
to simplify the temporal cue. Note that the teacher, by the use of her
instructions, prompts the clients to emit the correct response. Note again
how slowly the task is made more complex. By teaching time in this
particular controlled and simplified manner, one is helping the child
make the beginning discriminations of time. Meaningful use of time
concepts can best be accomplished in a more natural environment. For
example, one goal of teaching about time may be to help the student
describe his behaviors over time: what he did in the early morning, then
after breakfast, then before lunch, and so forth. In helping a client order
his behavior over time, the teacher teaches him to relate his experiences
to others. That is complex and meaningful use of language. But the
beginnings have to be made in a structured teaching situation that allows
for better control over the teaching steps.

Scene 7. This scene depicts the teaching of the volitional use of the
yes and no responses. The use of yes and no may move from volitional
acts to the use of terms like yes and no in factual contexts.

Scene 8. This illustrates one of the numerous programs through
which we hope the children may become more aware of their
environment. In the "What is missing?" game we start in a highly
structured environment and then move on to a more meaningful
environment. That is, one starts with items and "What is missing?" on the
table right in front of the child. One can then transfer that learning to
"What is missing?" elsewhere, as at home when the dinner table is set
with some items present and others not, when a person has put on
clothes and left some items off, when a picture
is removed from a wall, and so on. The program serves to help the
children become more aware of their environment and to verbalize
irregularities or deviations from what they are used to.

Scene 9. The child is taught to teach the teacher This kind of
control is extremely reinforcing for the child, which can be
observed in the noticeable increase in the clarity of his diction and good
use of language. Controlling others appears to be a reinforcing event,
especially for these children.

Scene 10. This scene shows that by reducing the number of teacher
cues and asking for larger and larger chains of responding one may
observe more spontaneous behaviors. With all the control and structure
that has characterized the teaching up to this point, we may have
suppressed (or not allowed for) spontaneous responding. Therefore, one
attempts to reduce the control, in later stages of learning, leaving more
and more responding to the child. The teacher has to arrange a
situation that helps the children become more spontaneous. Perhaps
the most spontaneous responding occurs in these situations where the
child finds the task intrinsically reinforcing. Such intrinsically reinforcing
tasks can, in transitory form, be observed in higher levels of self-
stimulatory behavior.

Scene 11. This scene shows the use of pictorial material to build
increasingly long descriptions of the environment to include color,
shape, behaviors of others, and so forth. Note again the use of prompts,
the fading of the prompts and the gradual building up of more and more
elaborate descriptive language behaviors on the part of the child.

Scene 12. This scene illustrates teaching of the terms same and
different. Note that this is a very difficult task and one which is
approached after a great deal of prior language work.
After one has worked with students in this kind of close and controlled
fashion, a problem appears in that the student believes almost anything
that the adult teaches him. In this scene, we illustrate how to explicitly
build programs to teach the children to doubt the teacher and question the
teacher's authority.

TAPE 5: EXPANDING YOUR CHILD'S WORLD

Scene 1. This scene shows a mother teaching her develop-mentally
disabled youngster early academic tasks. (Many of the teachers
depicted in earlier scenes are also mothers.) The mother is an
integral part of the treatment team and has been taught behavioral
teaching in an apprenticeship fashion, just like any other student.
Note the careful way in which the letters are introduced. The new
letter is introduced and is intermixed among the others in order for
the child to make an adequate discrimination. Note that if the child
is merely repeating the labeling of the letter, one is only teaching the
child to repeat and perseverate. It is the intermixing of tasks that
helps the child discriminate and brings him/her to mastery. As we
mentioned earlier, this is called discrimination learning and is the
most important part of a training program. When the parents are
involved like Ken's mother is here, one ensures that the child is in
teaching or treatment all his waking hours, seven days a week. Such
is the case with most normal or average children. Note how happy
Ken is when things are going well. A child who is taught well is also
a very happy child because positive reinforcers are forthcoming
often and predictably. A child who is taught well is not only happy
but is also learning at a steady rate.

Scene 2. Here is a demonstration of part of the teaching of
quantitative reasoning as in teaching the difference between more
and less. We go on to teach numbers and the early meaning of num-
bers. At this advanced level of teaching, interesting nuances begin
to occur. The more or less sequence between Anna and her mother
illustrates this well. Anna easily learns that she has more and it is
difficult for her to learn that she has less. Perhaps she understands
the more basic implications of what more is talking about.

Scene 3. In this scene we have a sequence teaching cause and effect
relationships, staying with as concrete and elementary behaviors as
we can. Note that earlier we have taught the components of these
sequences in smaller steps.

Scene 4. This scene illustrates how one may attempt to teach the
child to discriminate feelings. Note that we start with teaching labels
for facial expressions first because these cues are more easily
identified. After that we go on to help identify the underlying feel-
ings. Note how we go from the expression of feelings to the cause
of feelings. Teaching about feelings is important for any child and
perhaps especially for autistic/schizophrenic children. However,
only half of the intensively treated children reach this stage.

Scene 5. We are teaching the children here to ham it up and
become more full of expression. In the kind of closely controlled
programs that have been employed in the earlier stages, the teacher
needs to put in more affect and spontaneity in later stages.
Otherwise one ends up with children who act like robots.

Scene 6, In the later places of treatment one may attempt to teach
the use of language to create situations that actually are not present
in the immediate physical environment. The beginning of teaching
imagination is shown in this scene. Some professional persons have
maintained that one could not reach such a level of functioning
because retarded/autistic children were said to be incapable of such
achievements or because the training paradigm (learning theory)
could not help generate this kind of behavior. Obviously they
were wrong on both counts, which is to the children's benefit. But it
is also important to qualify this finding. With very intensive training
(more than 40 hours of one-on-one per week), less than half of the
children advance to this stage where they can use language for
imaginative purposes. Note how similar this program is to the way
an adult would help a more normal or average child learn to use
imagination. Perhaps the procedures that work so quickly with nor-
mal children also work with developmentally disabled ones.

Scene 7. Programs for teaching a client to learn about other people
in his environment are shown in this scene. Note again how we
proceed in easy steps. This is one of the early steps in observational
learning constructed with the intention to help the client to learn
by just observing other people learn. This should allow him to more
adequately function in a classroom where almost all learning is
done through observation rather than by one-to-one shaping of
individual behavior.

Scene 8. This scene illustrates a program that is closely related to
the previous program on observational learning. It deals with
helping the children gain information from their environment. In
this program, we attempt to teach the children to discriminate
between information they do and do not possess, to inform us cor-
rectly about that, and to seek information and answers to questions
they do not understand.
In conclusion, the point presented in the beginning of this booklet
should be reemphasized, namely that the scenes depicted in these
tapes are intended to help the teacher/parent by visually illustrating
certain teaching steps. The tapes are, by themselves, not sufficient
for teacher training and must be used in conjunction with The Me
Book and other teaching materials.
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